When you think of the paranormal and you think of cards, most people tend to think of Tarot Cards or Angel Cards. While these cards are generally used to give guidance, there is a special deck of cards which were originally designed to test ESP (Extra Sensory Perception). They are called Zener Cards (Rhine Cards).
What are Zener Cards?
Zener Cards (ESP Cards or Rhine Cards), were developed in in the early 1930’s by Karl Zener. They were used for experiments conducted with Mr Zener’s colleague, parapsychologist J.B Rhine. The deck consists of 5 cards of 5 distinct symbols (making a deck of 25). The symbols themselves are very distinct, so that they could not be confused. The aim of the cards was to test mental telepathy otherwise known as ESP.
How do you use Zener Cards?
There are 5 cards of each symbol. The deck is shuffled. There are 2 people which participate in the experiment and a third who acts as a moderator. The particpants are the sender and a receiver. The aim is quite simple. The sender picks a card from the deck. They then try to mentally send the image to the receiver. The receiver then concentrates and says the first image which comes to mind. This continues over a certain amount of time and then an overall success rate is calculated.
The experiment is not without it’s flaws. As there are 25 cards in the deck with 5 cards of each symbol, there is a 20 percent chance that someone would correctly guess the symbol at random. It was also acknowledged by Rhine that his experiment could not determine if the receiver was guessing randomly, if they were receiving the image telepathically or if they were receiving the image through clairvoyance (such a medium receiving the message). This meant that even if there was a high percentage of the cards being guessed correctly, there was no way to prove it was through ESP.
Did the experiment work?
Rhine himself claimed to have tested over 90,000 subjects with this experiment and came to the conclusion that ESP had been demonstrated and existed. Those who have tried to recreate his experiments found that the circumstances were not as controlled as they perhaps should have been such as how the cards are shuffled. It was also found that under the right lighting, the outline of the image could be seen through the back of a card. This was rectified by blacking out the back of the card. However for this and many other reasons, Rhine copped quite a lot of criticism for making such a bold claim and some even claimed that there was some cheating involved. Over time his methods of controlling the experiment improved, but like anything in the paranormal, people were sceptical and the scientific and sceptic community were not convinced that it was anything more than a random game of odds. The results themselves indicated that certain people were capable of getting results well above the baseline which a lot of researchers believe is an indication of ESP ability being present.
Image Source: The Scientist Magazine
A lot of people like to use the cards these days to hone in on their psychic abilities. While some people do test to see if they can mentally project the image telepathically, a lot of people who are sensitive or have psychic abilities use the cards to ‘test themselves’ or others and develop their abilities. A lot of people believe 'practise makes perfect' and that this test is a good way to help develop ability. The more a person does the test, the better they find their results are!
How to conduct your own experiment
I would suggest having at least 3 people. You would need a sender, a receiver and a moderator. It is the moderator’s role to ensure that everything is above board and there is not cheating or misleading etc. They are also there to record the results. Set a number of times to read a card. I would suggest that 50 is a good number. It basically means you are going through the deck twice. I think. 25 would be too little and 100 would be starting to get a little bit too much but this is just my recommendation based on the odds. Shuffle the cards extensively and place all 25 of them face down individually. Ideally there should be some sort of barrier between the sender and the receiver so that they cannot see each other. This is so the receiver cannot read facial expressions or accidently see the image on the card as it is being turned over. The sender will then pick up a card and look at the image. The sender then ‘mentally’ sends the image to the receiver. The receiver then says which image they believe it is. The moderator will take a note of what the card actually is and then the receiver’s guess. It is important that the moderator and the sender do not show any sort of emotion or indicate if the answer is correct or not. It is also important not to tell the receiver the results until the very end. Continue this until all 25 cards have been transmitted. Go through the process again (make sure to properly reshuffle the cards). Once completed again, it is time to calculate the results. As there is a 1 in 5 chance of randomly guessing the correct card, Rhine used 20% as his benchmark. Any percentage of correct guesses above 20%, Rhine considered to be a success.
Image by Living Life In Full Spectrum
So now you know how to use Zener cards. Have you used these cards before? What has your best score been? Do you believe we can mentally project images or is it a game of odds? Tell me your thoughts in the comments below.
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